|Authors: ||M. Kirchmair, S. Neuhauser, H. Strasser, N. Voloshchuk, M. Hoffmann, L. Huber|
|Keywords: ||biocontrol, Daktulosphaira, Metarhizium, viticulture, Vitis|
In the 1860s phylloxera was transferred with vine cuttings from the Eastern United States to Europe.
Several strategies to combat the aphid were discussed; besides the finally successful grafting on American vines, biological control of the aphid was already proposed.
In 1873 Riley initiated the first attempt for a biological control of grape phylloxera: Riley transferred the American predatory mite, Tyroglyphus phylloxerae, to France but the control effects were non-satisfying.
In 1874 Pasteur was the first who suggested the use of soil fungi against grape phylloxera but his recommendation was never tested in practice.
So did Hagen, Professor in Cambridge (Mass.) in 1879. After these early attempts no relevant activities were noticed until the 1970s when the Ukrainian scientists Goral and Gorkavenko started to work on the biocontrol of phylloxera.
The experts identified soil-dwelling predators of phylloxera, but still did not evaluate their efficacy in the field.
A control effect of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces farinosus against phylloxera was demonstrated, but no product based on these entomopathogenic fungi was developed.
In 1999 English-Loeb et al. evaluated the potential of entomopathogenic nematodes in laboratory bioassays, but no proper parasitism could be assessed.
Since 2001 scientific concerns over the use of fungal biocontrol agents are again increasing.
Granett et al. (2001) reported successful phylloxera control with B. bassiana in in vitro systems.
Since 2003 the use of GRANMET®, a commercial product based on barley kernels colonised by M. anisolpliae, is recommened.
The BIPESCO team and BISGRAM could demonstrate the efficacy of GRANMET® in phylloxera infetsted vineyards.
Although an efficient control is predicted, great efforts from industry is necessary for a successful registration of the product.
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