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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 78: Symposium on Tissue Culture for Horticultural Purposes

ADVENTITIOUS ORGAN FORMATION AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS IN CALLUS OF ASPARAGUS AND IRIS AND ITS POSSIBLE APPLICATION

Author:   G. Reuther
DOI:   10.17660/ActaHortic.1977.78.28
Abstract:
Callus formation of Asparagus officinalis was initiated on shoot segments of xx and yy-varieties on a medium according L/S with 1 ppm NAA + 1 ppm KIN. On media containing IAA and BAP in the ratio 1 : 1 or 10 : 1 adventitious shoots, roots and embryoid units developed. Single shoot initials or in groups of three buds originated only on the superficial cells of the callus, root initials however originated from inner callus layers. The bipolar bodies with shoot and root pole, procambium strand and cotyledon-like organs deviated more or less from zygotic asparagus embryos. A great numer of allmale and female asparagus plants could be propagated in vitro and cultured under field conditions for hybrid seed production. The vigor and yield of cultivars propagated by callus cultures is higher compared with plant material from seeds.

Callus from explanted shoot apex of Iris - plants, induced on a medium according L/S supplemented with 1 ppm 2,4-D + 1 ppm KIN, developed a great number of non-zygotic embryoids. The bipolar structure derived after 8 – 12 weeks from a slowly growing callus from relatively large globular or longish superficial areas which were separated gradually by a protoderm against the callus tissue. These somatic embryos revealed later the typical features of monocotyledonous zygotic embryos. On a Knudson medium without out plant growth regulators the callus born embryos germinated like explanted seed embryos. Mainly callus of Pogo - Regelio - Cyclus-hybrids revealed a high embryogenic potency. Within two years homogenous flowering plants from callus born embryos were obtained.

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