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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 761: XXVII International Horticultural Congress - IHC2006: International Symposium on Advances in Environmental Control, Automation and Cultivation Systems for Sustainable, High-Quality Crop Production under Protected Cultivation

PLANT PHYSIOLOGICAL ACCLIMATION TO IRRADIATION BY LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES (LEDS)

Authors:   S.W. Hogewoning, G. Trouwborst, G.J. Engbers, J. Harbinson, W. van Ieperen, J. Ruijsch, O. van Kooten, A.H.C.M. Schapendonk, C.S. Pot
Keywords:   narrow band lighting, assimilation lighting, supplemental lighting, interlighting, Spirodela polyrrhiza, greenhouse climate, leaf age
DOI:   10.17660/ActaHortic.2007.761.23
Abstract:
LEDs may be a suitable light source for future use as assimilation lighting in protected greenhouse cultivation. LEDs have properties which offer advantages compared to other light sources, but which also raise specific research questions. The narrow band spectrum of LEDs enables manufacturers to produce LED based light-sources specifically suitable for photosynthesis and other horticulturally relevant plant properties. The low radiated heat also makes LEDs suitable for interlighting (i.e., lighting from within the canopy), for which high pressure sodium lamps are not suitable. However, when using LEDs, crops must be able to acclimate their photosynthetic functioning to narrow band lighting (NBL) to efficiently use this light. Also, daylight-adapted leaves must be able to re-acclimate to NBL if LEDs would be used for interlighting in a high-wire grown crop. If low photosynthesis rates in older, lower leaves of the crop are also due to leaf age, besides low light, interlighting would be less effective. For investigating the intrinsic effect of NBL, we used 9 different arrays comprised of a single LED type (peak wavelengths in the range 460668 nm) at light-limited irradiance (50 μmol m-2 s-1). Spirodela polyrrhiza (Lemnaceae) was cultivated as its leaves can not change in distance or orientation towards the light source. This enabled us to compare the effects of the different light sources on parameters such as growth rate and photosynthetic pigment composition. In order to separate the effect of light intensity and leaf age on photosynthesis, tomato plants were grown horizontally, so that older leaves were not shaded by younger leaves. Re-acclimation of leaves to NBL was investigated by illuminating older leaves (low in the canopy) using different LED arrays in a high-wire grown tomato crop. The light-harvesting apparatus of Spirodela polyrrhiza acclimated to the different NBL regimes within 6 days. Leaf age proved to be an irrelevant factor for photosynthetic capacity (Pmax) of greenhouse grown tomato plants. Pmax of leaves at a low position in a high-wire grown tomato crop, with a low Pmax, did re-acclimate to the higher light intensities supplied by the supplemental NBL by progressively increasing their Pmax. However, as it took 14 days for Pmax to increase from 5.6 to 12.4 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1, maintaining a continuously higher light level within the canopy would be more effective.

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