|Author: ||V. Galán Saúco|
|Keywords: ||Mangifera indica L., cultural techniques, geographic distribution, marketing, production|
The mango is cultivated throughout practically all of Latin America, in the tropical and subtropical regions from Mexico to Chile.
Most of the production is consumed locally, although Puerto Rico, Mexico, Brazil, Guatemala, Haiti, Ecuador, Peru, Costa Rica, and Venezuela are important exporters; Mexico is currently the largest mango exporter in the world.
Exports are sent to the European and North American markets.
Processed mango is of commercial importance only in Cuba and, to a lesser extent, in Venezuela and Mexico.
The main cultivars are Tommy Atkins, Keitt, and Haden, all grafted on polyembryonic rootstocks.
Brazil is the only country with a breeding programme, although several other countries have selection programmes for local and introduced material and cultivar evaluation.
Modern technology in the fields of irrigation, fertilization, control of flowering, pruning, etc., is still very limited.
The main phytopathological problem is various species of fruit fly, which obliges exporters to the United States to use hot-water treatments.
Other important problems are malformations and anthracnose.
Various problems, affecting different countries, limit further development, among which are infrastructural deficiencies, inadequate loan policies to cover new plantings, and diverse climatic and edaphic adversities.
Considerable efforts are still needed in research, extension, and investments in mango cultivation.
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