|Authors: ||P.A. Mourikis, A. Tsourgianni, A. Chitzanidis|
|Keywords: ||Sanitation, chemical control|
The major and minor insect pests attacking pistachio trees in Greece are described. Capnodis tenebrionis has been observed in roots of non irrigated trees.
On branches and twigs of weakened trees the coleoptera Acrantus (=Chaetoptelius) vestitus, Esteneborus perisii and Sinoxylon sexdentatum might be found.
On leaves, the leaf folders Archips rosanus and Teleiodes decorella are endemic in some regions. Taumetopoea solitaria has been reported only once feeding on leaves.
Leaf feeding coleoptera, mainly Chrysomelidae, are widespread but are of minor importance. Pseudocoeliodes rubricus attacks the inflorescence of male trees only.
The psyllid Agonoscena sp. may cause premature defoliation. Idiocerus stali, when in large populations, causes withering of leaves and blight of young panicles.
The most serious pests of pistachios are the microlepidoptera Palumbina guerinii and the seed chalcid Eurytoma plotnikovi. Both attack fruits every year causing up to 90% infestation.
The scale insects Anapulvinaria pistaciae, Saissetia oleae, Ceroplastes rusci, Melanaspis inopinata and Lepidosaphes pistaciae have been observed in small populations. Apomyelois ceratoniae has been found on split fruits remaining on the trees after harvest.
This species and Ephestia sp. may infest stored nuts.
For most of these pests sanitation measures are the primary means of control.
Annual spray applications are necessary against P. guerinii and E. plotnikovi. Sprays against other pests are applied only in cases of heavy infestations.
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