|rust control, Basidiomycetes, Puccinia, Phragmidium, Medicinal plants, Aromatic plants, Fungicides, Bulgaria
Among the most devastating diseases effecting aromatic and medicinal plants are rust diseases.
They cause leaves to wither, to fall, and to reduce yield affecting the quality of the essential oils and the biologically active substances.
In 1990–1994, in the Experimental Gardens of Research Institute for Roses, Aromatic and Medicinal Plants in Kazanlak, Bulgaria conducted an investigation on the diversity of rust species.
We identified different rust diseases on 12 plant species: Phragmidium mucronatum on rose (Rosa damascena cv. trigintipetala), Puccinia menthae on mint species (Mentha piperita, Mentha arvensis and Mentha spicata), on marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.), Puccinia dracunculina on Artemisia dracunculus L., Puccinia absinthii on wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), Puccinia asparagii on asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), Puccinia balsamitae on Chrysanthemum balsamita L., Puccinia tanaceti on tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), Puccinia commutata on valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.), Puccinia malvacearum on marshmallow (Althea officinalis L.), and Puccinia horriana on Chrysanthemum indicum L.. Within most of these plant species, rust diseases affected over 50% of the leaves, resulting in significant injuries.
Up until now, these diseases have not been identified nor reported to have appeared on our countries plant species.
We established some special biological features of the pathogens as the time for initial and large-scale germination of teliospores, their initial effect on the plants and the infection rate.
A brief survey of the rust species as well as some fungicides against them are also given.