|Authors: ||W. Adiyoga, H. de Putter|
|Keywords: ||farm-records, mode of action, active ingredient, pesticide cocktails, broad- spectrum, organophosphates, pyrethroids|
Data were collected from 13 farmers' detailed daily farm-records in Brebes Regency, Central Java, in November 2010-August 2011. Based on brand names of pesticides recorded by farmers, active ingredient (AI) and mode of action (MoA) group according to IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee) and FRAC (Fungicide Resistance Action Committee) were identified.
Results showed that the average number of spray applications during the presence of shallot in the intercropping system was 12 times season-1 with 599 L ha-1 of spray volume, while for hot pepper (after shallot was harvested) was 24 times/season with 632 L ha-1 of spray volume.
The use of pesticide cocktails in a tank-mix was quite common for farmers.
In shallot, farmers applied insecticides from MoA group-1B in 91% of all spray applications.
Insecticides from group 13 were present in 60% of all spray applications, while fungicides from MoA group-M3 were used by all farmers in 96% of spray applications.
In hot pepper, all farmers used fungicides from MoA group-6 and these were present in 54% of spray applications.
Almost all farmers used fungicides from MoA group-4A, and these were present in 53% of spray applications.
Many cocktails contained broad-spectrum insecticides (e.g., MoA groups 1B-organophosphates and 3A-pyrethroids) to which two to three more specific insecticides were also added.
Due to pesticide misuse, it is most likely that pest and disease resistance is present on a large scale in the region.
Furthermore, excessive use of pesticides caused by frequent spraying, use of pesticide cocktails with similar spectrum of action, and high water volumes, has also resulted in high production costs.
Improvements in farmers' crop protection strategies in shallot and hot pepper cultivation are urgently required.
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