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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 922: XXVIII International Horticultural Congress on Science and Horticulture for People (IHC2010): International Symposium on CLIMWATER 2010: Horticultural Use of Water in a Changing Climate

APPLE-TREE ROOT DEVELOPMENT AND DISTRIBUTION INFLUENCED BY SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, FERTIGATION AND MULCHING

Authors:   V. Surikova, E. Rubauskis, V. Berlands , M. Skrivele , A. Kārkliņš
Keywords:   plant nutrients, Malus, factor analysis, cluster analysis
DOI:   10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.922.41
Abstract:
The aim of the study was to investigate root distribution of apple-trees on the dwarf rootstock B.9 as influenced by soil water management methods and soil chemical properties. The investigation was done on the base of an existing trial located at Latvia State Institute of Fruit-Growing (Dobele) with cultivar ‘Melba’. The following soil water management treatments were applied: (1) control; (2) sawdust mulch in strips and (3) fertigation. For determination of root distribution, trenches were made near the trees across the rows, 1.2 m deep, 2.6 m long and 0.8 m wide. On the wall of trenches roots were colored and counted by size classes using a frame with 0.15×0.15 m pixels. In each pixel soil sampling was performed and determination of soil organic matter, pH, Ca, S, P, K, Mg, B, N was done. The obtained data were analyzed using factorial, multiple regression and cluster analyses. The soil chemical properties were divided into three groups by complex factor analysis. Components of the first group such as N, P, K content were considered as fundamental parameters for plant survival and growth. Parameters of the second group (S, Mg and Ca content) influence soil exchangeable acidity. The third group parameter was soil reaction – pH. Cluster analysis gave a possibility to explain the positive effect of mulch on apple-tree root development. Other factors having positive effect on root development were optimal or high concentrations of plant-available K, P, Mg, Ca, S and Cu, but negative – high concentration of Mn.

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