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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 798: III International Symposium on Fig

COMPARISON OF FIG CAPRIFICATION VESSELS, PERIOD AND CAPRIFIG CULTIVAR USABLE IN IRAN

Author:   H. Zare
Keywords:   Blastophaga sp., fig wasp, Sabz cultivar, syconia
DOI:   10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.798.33
Abstract:
The caprification of syconia flowers for fertilization and fruit set of Iranian main edible fig cultivars are carried out by the fig pollinator wasp (Blastophaga sp.). Unfortunately, the commonly used caprification methods lead into excessive losses of the female Blastophaga wasps. Furthermore, the orchard management costs are increased with these methods due to high cost of the caprifig fruits. To identify the best vessel, the most suitable period for caprification, and the most effective caprifig cultivar for the caprification of ‘Sabz’, a fig cultivar grown in Estahban, an experiment was performed in split design with three factors and three replications. The two dominant caprifig cultivars in Iran, ‘Pouzdonbali’ and ‘Daneh-Sefid’ used in two levels, were considered for the main plot. Caprifying once in every 3 days and once in every 6 days with two levels of caprifigs were considered as the sub-plot. The secondary sub-plot with six caprification vessels consisted of: a) a tin container, b) a black cardboard, c) a white cardboard, d) a netted metal, e) a netted plastic, and f) a basket made up from plant branches. The number of wasps moving out from caprifig fruit, wasps died in the pulp region, and wasps died inside the syconia were determined. The diameter of the dried fruit and ostiole opening, the skin color, the number of embryos in dried fruit, the number of syconia abscised, and the yield per 1 m3 of tree crown were measured for each treatment. The results showed that the caprifig ‘Daneh-Sefid’ resulted in higher percentage (and more weight) of large fruits with a diameter >22 mm, in fruits with fully and semi-opened ostiole, in early ripening of fruits, and lower abscission of syconia. Therefore, this caprifig was the most suitable cultivar for caprification of the edible ‘Sabz’ fig. Caprifying once in every 3 days increased the number of fruits having fruit diameter ranging from 17 to 22 mm, fruit with closed ostiole, and light brown skin fruits, and reduced syconia abscission. The black cardboard vessel was shown to be significantly better than the other vessels used in this study in increasing the number of viable female wasps useful in the caprification process.
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