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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 736: III International Date Palm Conference

RECENT ADVANCES IN DATE PALM TISSUE CULTURE AND MUTAGENESIS

Author:   S. Mohan Jain
Keywords:   somatic embryogenesis, micropropagation, mutation induction, temporary immersion system
DOI:   10.17660/ActaHortic.2007.736.18
Abstract:
Micropropagation techniques for rapid shoot proliferation are achieved from any part of the plant such as shoot tip, tiny stem cuttings, roots, and auxiliary buds. It is critical to select proper genotypes and grow mother plants under a controlled environment, and to determine the maximum number of subcultures before initiating new cultures. By failing to do so, in vitro grown plants will show somaclonal variation in the field. Somatic embryogenesis is an ideal technique for clonal propagation of woody and fruit plants and genetic gain can now be captured through it. It has several additional advantages, such as the ability to produce large numbers of plants, potential for automation, the opportunities for synthetic seed, long-term storage (cryopreservation), packaging, direct delivery systems and genetic manipulations. Somatic embryogenesis is highly genotypic dependent, and it would be useful to modify the culture medium accordingly. For mutation induction, fine ‘embryogenic cell suspension cultures’ are gamma irradiated. Irradiated cells are further cultured onto fresh medium for the development, maturation and germination of mutated somatic embryos. This approach produces mutated somatic seedlings in a short period of time and also prevents chimerism problems which otherwise would require that plants be multiplied up to M1V4 generation for chimera dissociation.

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