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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 632: XXVI International Horticultural Congress: Citrus and Other Subtropical and Tropical Fruit Crops: Issues, Advances and Opportunities

SELECTED CULTURAL TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE PRODUCTION OF SOME SUBTROPICAL AND TROPICAL FRUIT CROPS

Author:   J.H. Crane
Keywords:   pruning, drought stress, carambola, mango, ¿Tahiti¿ lime, guava, plant growth regulators
Abstract:
Pruning, drought stress, and plant growth regulators (PGR) have been utilized to promote off-season flowering with varying success in tropical fruit production. However, removing an existent crop to promote off-season fruit production is not a common cultural practice. Pruning may involve removal of selected limbs or portions of limbs or mechanical pruning large areas of the tree canopy. Pruning is commonly used as a means to control trees size and synchronize the vegetative and reproductive cycle of trees but may also be utilized to stimulate off-season flowering and fruit production. Pruning has been used in mango (Mangifera indica), lime (Citrus latifolia), guava (Psidium guajava), and carambola (Averrhoa carambola) production. Drought stress and PGR use are common in production areas where climatic conditions are not always favorable for flowering and/or as a means to produce off-season fruit. Drought stress may be utilized as a tool to force vegetative quiescence, induce off-season flowering, enhance the potential for flowering, and increase flowering intensity. This technique has been successfully used for many tropical fruit crops including mango, lime, guava, lychee (Litchi chinensis), and longan (Dimocarpus longan) production. Other methods to induce flowering such as branch girdling have been used for many crops and is used along with other cultural methods (e.g., drought stress, PGRs) in lychee and longan production. Flooding has been used to induce early bloom and fruiting of wax jambu (Syzygium samarangense). This review will not cover girdling and flooding practices. This brief review will illustrate the commercial use of selective and mechanical pruning, crop removal, drought stress, and PGRs used to induce flowering and fruiting of carambola, guava, ‘Tahiti’ lime, and mango.
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