|Author: ||I.H. Williams|
|Keywords: ||Trifolium repens, legumes, isozyme, Apis mellifera, Bombus spp., breeding systems, biotechnology|
Recent advances in biotechnology offer the possibility of growing a wide range of insect-pollinated crops to which genes have been introduced from other organisms by genetic modification (GM). Evaluation of their potential environmental impact must include risk assessment of the likely spread of transgenes via pollen by their insect-pollinators, largely bees, to other crops or to sexually-compatible wild relatives.
Bee-mediated pollen and gene flow is a function of the deposition of viable, compatible pollen from donor to recipient plants along bee foraging routes, and of the spatial dynamics of those foraging routes within bee forage areas.
Knowledge of bee foraging behaviour aids the design of appropriate confinement strategies for experimental releases, monitoring protocols, and mitigation procedures for risk management.
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