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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 555: II International Symposium on Edible Alliaceae

POLISH CULTIVARS OF ONIONS

Author:   T. Kotlinska
Keywords:   origin, production, economic traits, landrace, breeding
DOI:   10.17660/ActaHortic.2001.555.34
Abstract:
Poland has grown onion crops since the 12th century. Between 1991-96 30000-37000 ha were utilized for onion production with a total production of 54000-72000t and a yield of 15.6-21.6t/ha. In 1995/96 export reached 138000t and Poland was ranked fifth place in the world.
The first original Polish Wolska cultivar was bred in 1912 by crossing Zytawska with landrace Wolska. The resultant Wolska cultivar has large globe-rhombic shaped bulbs, straw yellow dry skin, 13.5% dry matter, is suitable for long term storage and was for years the main cultivar used in production and export. Using the original Wolska cultivar as parent material 7 further Wolska type cultivars have been bred, differing amongst themselves with respect to vegetation period, shape and size of bulbs, colour, skin thickness and adherence of dry skin, yield and storage ability. The Wolska type cultivars on the list of National cultivars are Czerniakowska, Warzawska (medium-late), Sochaczewska, Wolska and Kutnowska (late). Other cultivars are Rawska (early-medium) bred in 1938 with globular, slightly elongated bulbs, brown-yellow dry skin, dry matter content of 15-16%, suitable for storage; Dako bred in 1948 for fresh consumption, has flattened, straw-yellow, sweet tasting and large bulbs; Zytawska selected in 1950 has flat bulbs, straw-yellow dry skin. Landraces are grown on a small scale, they include Szczebrzeszyńska, Lubartowska, Drazgowska, Przybyszewska and others.
The above mentioned cultivars and landraces were used as the source material for breeding programs to develop new cultivars with improved quality and productivity, some of the new cultivars include Kristine, Efekt, Fiesta, Grabowska, Supra, Pino, Dawidowska and Niagara F1.

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