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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 555: II International Symposium on Edible Alliaceae

MORPHO-ANATOMICAL FEATURES AND POSTHARVEST CHANGES IN GARLIC (Allium sativum L.) HARVESTED AT DIFFERENT MATURITIES

Authors:   P. Nuevo, O.K. Bautista
Keywords:   garlic, postharvest, crystals, pores, emergence
DOI:   10.17660/ActaHortic.2001.555.29
Abstract:
This study was done to elucidate the morpho-anatomical features of garlic ‘Batangas Red’ (Allium sativum L) harvested at 90-115 days after planting (DAP) and to relate them to postharvest changes during storage at ambient conditions for 180 days. The papery sheath of bulbs at all stages of maturity had tracheary elements between parenchyma cells containing rhomboidal and rectangular calcium crystals. The innermost layer of the papery sheath contained 1-2 dilated stomata per microfield area of 0.256 mm2. The 90-DAP bulb was found to be immature. It was ovoid with an even surface and thick neck. Its papery layers and protective leaf were relatively thinner compared to older bulbs. The 105-, 110-, and 115-DAP bulbs were spherical, ridged and had narrow necks. However, the 110-DAP bulb had a wider neck than the 105-DAP bulb and a relatively thinner protective leaf, possibly due to a resumption of foliage growth due to rain between 105 and 110 days. It had pores and emergences which were not found in the older bulbs. Postharvest quality of the immature bulbs was thus inferior. Weight loss was high and softening of the cloves was fast leading to rapid deterioration. Total soluble solid content and pungency as indicated by its pyruvate content were low and respiration rate was high. Therefore, garlic bulbs must be harvested no earlier than 105 days provided there was no rain prior to harvesting. Mature bulbs can be stored in ambient condition with minimal losses for a maximum period of 120 days.
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