|Authors: ||T. Shimomura, T. Kondo|
|Keywords: ||Liriope, Ophiopogon, Reineckea, ground covers, multiple embryos, polyembryony, seed germination|
The seed germination and polyembryony of Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl., Liriope platyphylla Wang et Tang. and Reineckea carnea (Andr.) Kunth were investigated.
These plants have been widely used as groundcovers in Japan.
Depulped seeds of O. japonicus Ker-Gawl. were incubated in petri dishes in an incubator maintained at 10,15,20,25,30, 25/10°C (12h/12h) under both light and dark conditions.
After 54 days, the seeds at 25°C in the dark gave the highest germination rate (83%). 25°C was also found to be optimal for seed germination of O. japonicus. 'Tamaryu', L. platyphylla and R. carnea under dark conditions. O. japonicus seeds both with and without depulping were stored for 2 to 24 weeks at both room temperature and 4°C in both dry and wet conditions.
The depulped seeds stored at 4°C in wet conditions showed 93% germination after 24-week storage.
The seeds which had germinated were then transferred into soil.
About 40% of the seeds produced two or three shoots.
These shoots were separated from each other and each shoot grew into a normal plant.
Seeds of R. carnea (Andr.) Kunth, sown in soil mix, also produced multiple shoots.
Sixty seven percent of seedlings had two to four shoots.
Scanning electron and optical microscopic observation showed that the seeds of both species contained multiple embryos.
The multiple embryos were located in a pole of the seed but each embryo was independent.
The facts indicated that these two species had polyembryony and the multiple shoots developed from the multiple embryos in a seed.
The origin of the multiple embryos has not been determined yet.
Polyembryony in related species is also discussed.
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