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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 515: XXV International Horticultural Congress, Part 5: Culture Techniques with Special Emphasis on Environmental Implications Chemical, Physical and Biological Means of Regulating Crop Growth in Ornamentals and Other Crops

EFFECT OF THE BEARING CONDITION OF THE TREE AND DEFOLIATION ON THE DORMANCY ONSET AND RELEASE OF OLIVE BUDS

Authors:   A. Ramos, L. Rallo, H.F. Rapoport
Keywords:   biennial bearing, chilling requirements, dormancy onset, dormancy release, forced budburst, Olive (Oleae europeae L.)
Abstract:
Leafy and defoliated 3-node cuttings of 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' olive were obtained in the field from June 1996 until February 1997 and forced for budburst in a growth chamber at 20°C. Defoliation increased budburst of cuttings taken from both bearing (ON) and non bearing (OFF) trees, although the budburst pattern differed. In OFF defoliated cuttings, there was a steady decrease in budburst from June to December, except in September when budburst increased. In February, defoliation had no effect and there was a sharp increase of budburst due to inflorescence development. In ON defoliated cuttings, there was a variable but relatively uniform budburst trend and a small final inflorescence development. Reproductive budburst was only observed after chilling accumulation. Forcing temperatures influenced the time and duration of reproductive budburst: 12.5°C promoted earlier and slower budburst and 30°C later and faster budburst comparing with 20°C. Anatomical observations confirm a differential behavior in ON and OFF development after sufficient chilling accumulation. Dormancy and release from dormancy of OFF buds appears to be a prerequisite for inflorescence development.
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