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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 433: I International Symposium on Edible Alliaceae

ONION IMPROVEMENT IN INDIA

Author:   D. Singh
Keywords:   Onion (Allium cepa L.), purple blotch, Stemphyllium blight, Mass Selection
Abstract:
Short day red skinned onion varieties are widely cultivated in India. There are about twenty eight improved varieties developed in India by onion breeders working in various Agricultural Universities; IARI, New Delhi; IIHR, Bangalore, AADF and NBPGR, New Delhi. At national level there is a great demand of seed of red skinned varieties. viz N-53 (Niphed53) and Agrifound dark Red during Kharif Season; Pusa Red and Arka Niketan during Rabiseason and cv. Agrifound delight Red during Rangda season. These cultivars have high degree adaptability in India. Other red skinned improved cultivars grown in various states of India are Pusa Madhvi, Arka Kalyan, N-2𣯓, Punjab Red Round, Punjab Narroya and Punjab Selection, whereas white skinned are Pusa white Flat, Pusa white Round and S-48. The white skinned are suitable for dehydration. These cultivars are pungent, mature in 120145 days, bulb wight from 70150 g, TSS ranges from 1115 %. and total yield ranging from 250350 quintals per hectare. Genetical studies conducted in India on short day improved cultivars revealed additive gene effects for dry matter content, bulb size and maturity; whereas both additive and non-additive gene effects for bulb yield and number of leaves per plant were observed. In India mass selection and modified mass selection of breeding is extensively followed to improve local material/land races under cultivation. In India efforts are being made to develop purple blotch resistant varieties, but so far no durable resistant variety is available. However Selections 11𢴏 and 11HR-25 are reported to be resistant from 11HR, Bangalore and Punjab Red Round and Punjab Narroya (PBR-5) are reported from PAU and tolerant to purple blotch. No commercial F11-hybrid is developed in India, however CMS lines are developed from local improved varieties.
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