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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 318: II International Symposium on Specialty and Exotic Vegetable Crops

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE: A VEGETABLE CROP GROWTH REGULATION AND CULTIVARS.

Author:   S. Klug-Andersen
Keywords:   Helianthus tuberosus L, tuber yield, quality grading, plant density, stopping, time of harvest
DOI:   10.17660/ActaHortic.1992.318.18
Abstract:
Field experiments were performed during 1990–91 with the aim of finding cultivars, plant spacings and growth regulation methods suited for production of roundish, smooth - grade 1 - tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L) as a vegetable crop. Fourteen cultivars predominantly with whiteskinned tubers were tried, one of which was found unsuited for the purpose. The rest of the cultivars could be grouped into four groups. Two groups were mainly suited for early production (mid August to mid October) and early to main season production (late August to December). The cultivars of the earlier group had the disadvantage that approximately 50% of their tuberyield fell in grade 11 - i.e. branched or irregular tubers. Two groups of cultivars were suited for main and late season production (early October to February/March). November-December total yield varied among cultivars from 12.7 to 61.8t/ha in 1990 and from 23.2 to 47.0 t/ha in 1991 at a plant density of 4 plants/m2. The comparable grade 1 yield varied from 9.4 to 35.4 t/ha in 1990 and from 14.2 to 32.9 t/ha in 1991. Late August total yield and grade 1 yield varied among cultivars from 1.5 to 5.7 t/ha and from 0.0 to 1.1 t/ha respectively in 1991 at 4 plants/m2. Raising plant density from 2 to 8 plants/m2 almost doubled grade 1 yield, increased total yield by approximately 50%, reduced average tuber weight by 20%, but only reduced grade I average tuber weight by 10%. Stopping at July did not significantly affect the tuber growth of early and early to main season groups of cultivars. It delayed and reduced yield and average tuber weight of main to late season groups of cultivars - most severely in the low-yielding year. Sizes of seed tubers of 25–200 g/tuber did not affect the tuber characters investigated.

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