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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 310: International Symposium on Fruit Growing in Tropical Highlands

ADAPTATION OF APPLE VARIETIES IN ECUADOR

Author:   M. Barahona
Abstract:
Ecuador, with the assitance of the Swiss Technical Cooperation (COTESU), is making efforts to introduce fruit species both of the deciduous fruit) type as of the permanent leaf type. The objective is to replace the traditional varieties. This paper describes the behavior of 50 apple varieties (Malus domestica Borkb) in three farms of the fruit culture program of the National Institute of Agrarian Research (INIAP). The plantations are turning seven years old and are grafted primarily onto MM 106; in the last three years, the plants (5 per variety) have been subjected to a fertilizing plan, using a 90–40–150 formula for N-P-K in doses of 1.5 kg/plant/year, although in the subtropical zone the dose is applied twice a year on account of the double crop. The results report that varieties with average cold requirements (600–800 hours) adapt superbly to the temperate zones of the country, especially 'Bell Golden', 'Granny Swith', 'Royal Gala', 'Tropical Beauty', 'Mutsu', 'Fuji', 'Golden Delicious' and 'Jubilee', while in the subtropics 'Anna', 'Dorset Golden' and 'Slor' stand out. These varieties have low cold requirements (200–500 hours). In this zone it is necessary to apply cold compensators to enable fruit production.
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