|Authors: ||W. Reis Fo, I. Nora, R. Melzer|
Until 1982 there was no publication indicating that Grapholita molesta was causing damage to apple in Santa Catarina state, Southern Brazil.
Since then, moths have been trapped from the beginning of August to the end of May.
During the winter the insect enters diapause as last instar larvae in mummified fruit on the tree, on the soil or in capsules attached to branches.
Monitoring with pheromone traps has revealed an increasing population year by year.
In 1982/83 the maximum catches were 4 male moths/trap/week.
This increased to 4.5 moths/trap/week in the following year.
In 1984/85 the insect population reached a maximum of 15 male/trap/week, and this rose to 85 male trap/week in 1985/86. Since then Grapholita molesta has been considered an important pest in apple orchards in Santa Catarina state, damaging up to 90% of the fruits.
Eleven percent of the shoot apices have been attacked after summer pruning, hindering the development of new shoots.
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