The problems of designing plant growing structures in the Soviet Union are solved on the basis of our experience gained so far and involve several characteristic aspects.
Designing. After the scientific substantiation of the task and the necessary preparations are made an experimental or standard model for plant growing structures is designed.
Such standard plans are being elborated in cases, when it is necessary to check and study new volumetrical, planning and constructional problems or a new automation system.
Designing is being carried out both for separate plant growing structures and for greenhouse vegetable producing complexes, which include block and shed-type of heated glasshouses, all kinds of farm buildings, living quarters, store-houses for sorting, packing and preserving the crops, work-shops, garages, administrative buildings, dining-halls, inner communication lines, etc.
The mass character of the large greenhouse units imposed the working out of standard plans, distributed by a special institute, which, among other information, publishes lists and catalogues of the existing projects.
The specialized zonal institutes effect the application of these standard types of projects to the specific construction sites.
The grounds for planning greenhouse vegetable growing complexes and individual cultivating facilities consist of the established nomenclature of the plant growing structures, the norms of technological planning, the construction norms and instructions for the planning of greenhouses and auxilliary buildings, the overall construction schemes and sanitary norms.
The designation and installed power capacities of the greenhouse combines are listed in the established and approved nomenclature, as well as the plant growing structures, with indications of the manner of vegetable and seedling growing structures, with indications of the manner of vegetable and seedling growing (in soil, hydroponic, etc.).
With a view of the conditions prevailing in this country, it is recommended to construct vegetable growing greenhouse complexes in the southern regions of 12, 18, 24 and 30 hectares, while in the central regions the greenhouse areas should be 6, 12 and 18 hectares.
Winter (heated) greenhouses: the shed-type should be of around 1000 m2, while the block-type of greenhouses should cover areas of 1, 2 and 3 hectares.
Spring season greenhouses: the shed-type should be constructed over 600 and 1000 m2 and the block greenhouses: 1000 and 10000 m2.
The established norms for the technologic planning of plant growing structures forsee means, regimes and norms for growing seedlings and vegetable crops; power capacity and structure of the complexes; zonation of greenhouses; and composition of the auxilliary equipment.