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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 132: III International Symposium on Spice and Medicinal Plants, XXI IHC

HYBRIDS OF OPIUM POPPY (PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM L.) WITH CHANGED MORPHINE ALKALOID CONTENT

Authors:   U.S. Kaicker, B. Choudhury
Abstract:
The morphine content in eight varieties of opium poppy ranged between 11.84 to 14.78 percent, when the samples of opium from different plants were bulked together. The estimation of morphine strength was done on dry basis using B.P. method. However, one of the hybrids namely "Dhola Chhotta Gotia" x "Kantia Pink" in a 8x8 (diallel 1977–79) set, had morphine strength (17.52%) which was as high as 44.9% over its better parent. This was due to high g.c.a. of "Kantia Pink" and s.c.a. effect of this cross. However, none of the collective F2 or BC1 and BC2 samples higher percentage than that of the best F1. Overdominance for this character was present in gene action studies. In another combination with indigenous "Dhola Chhotta Gotia" x "EC 111569" (from Agricultural Research Centre, Beltsville, USA), the morphine strength was 19.56%. Estimation of morphine on single plant basis in advocated rather than using B.P. method which requires at least 8 gm of dried opium sample for analysis. Especially in advanced generations, where single plant samples in small quantities are available, the thin layer chromatographic method (TLC) of morphine estimation is advocated.
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