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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1208: II Asian Horticultural Congress

Characteristics of morphological and biological traits of ornamental Chinese and Japanese peach cultivars in the conditions of introduction on the Black Sea coast

Author:   L.D. Komar-Tyomnaya
Keywords:   peach cultivars, economically valuable traits, introduction, adaptation
DOI:   10.17660/ActaHortic.2018.1208.17
One of the important ways the plant collections develop is the introduction of species, cultivars and forms from various regions, first of all, the genetic centers of origin. China is the primary genetic center of origin for peach and ornamental cultivars and it is a promising area for plant introduction to the Black Sea coast. A few years ago, the collection of ornamental peaches of the Nikitа Botanical Gardens was replenished by 17 cultivars of Chinese and 5 of Japanese origin, as a result of the exchange with the gene pool of the Beijing Botanical Garden. Comparative evaluation of the newly introduced cultivars with the previous composition of the collection allowed for an allocation of the sources of many economically important traits among them. 'Wanbai Tao', 'Bi Tao', 'Zan Fen', 'Fei Tao', 'Sahong Tao', and 'Ningxia Zi Ye' have a very beautiful flower shape, a number of petals more than 30, are highly ornamental, and have a late flowering period. The last four cultivars are also characterized by a variegated coloration of the corolla, and 'Ningxia Zi Ye' also has purple-red leaves. 'Terutebeni', 'Terutehime', and 'Teruteshiro' have an original crown pillar type. 'Hongyu Chuizhi', 'Yuanping Chuizhi', 'Yuanyang Chuizhi', and 'Wubao Chuizhi' are characterized by a weeping crown. 'Liangfen Shouxing' and 'Xiayu Shouxing' are dwarfs. These genotypes can be used in breeding programs based on these traits, although some of them do not reach the quantitative values of the diameter of flower and the number of petals which have been observed in Beijing. All the introduced cultivars tolerated the mild winters at the Black Sea coast well, but in a more continental climate such as the steppe of Crimea their generative buds can freeze due to high frost. All cultivars were susceptible to leaf curl, powdery mildew and monilial burn flowers in varying degrees and should be cultivated with the use of plant protection products. Overall, the adaptation of introduced cultivars was successful.

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