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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1207: V International Symposium on Tomato Diseases: Perspectives and Future Directions in Tomato Protection

The prospect of non-chemical control on sugar beet of cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii Schmidt 1871

Author:   M. Nasr Esfahani
Keywords:   farm and poultry manure, compost, vermicompost, cabbage leaves
DOI:   10.17660/ActaHortic.2018.1207.22
Abstract:
Sugar beet, Beta vulgaris L., is a very important crop in terms of sugar production. More than 50 different diseases attack sugar beets at various growth stages and during storage, and sugar beet cyst nematode (SBCN), Heterodera schachtii Schmidt 1871, is one of the most important ones. In this research, experiments were carried out to examine the possibility of non-chemical control of SBCN in the field and greenhouse using organic fertilizers including poultry manure at 10, 20 and 40 t ha‑1, farm manure, two types of compost in particles size 08 (8.0 mm) and 015 (15.0 mm), vermicompost and waste cabbage leaves, each at 20, 40 and 60 t ha‑1, in comparison with controls. Final data on SBCN nematode population, number of eggs and second juveniles g-1 soil were the basis for statistical analysis. Also, reproductive factors and the percentage increase or decrease in SBCN population in each treatment were calculated relative to initial levels. It was found that poultry manure was the most effective treatment to reduce SBCN population, at 93.3%, and the least-effective treatment was farm manure at 20 t ha‑1, at 44.8%, compared to the other treatments and the controls. The lowest reproduction factor was in poultry manure, followed by compost 08 and 015, vermicompost, cabbage leaves and farm manure, at 60 t ha‑1 respectively. Yield, sugar content and other indices showed very significant variations. Poultry manure at 40 and 20 t ha‑1, at 27.6 and 26.9 t ha‑1, produced the highest yields. The lowest yields were with cabbage leaves and control, at 20 and 13.8 t ha‑1. The sugar contents were highest in compost 015 and 08 treatments at 60 t ha‑1, at 18.6 and 17.97%, and the lowest sugar levels were found with cabbage leaves at 20 t ha‑1 and controls, at 13.4 and 14.2%, respectively. In terms of major elements, the highest potassium content was in farm manure at 40 t ha‑1, at 13.7 mg 100 g-1, and compost 015 at 40 t ha‑1 and vermicompost at 40 t ha‑1, at 7 and 6.9 mg 100 g-1 of beet, and the largest amount of sodium was in the compost 015 and 08 treatments at 60 t ha‑1, at 4.7 and 4.6 mg 100 g‑1, respectively.

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