|Authors: ||H. Ramirez, B.Y. Alvizo-Medrano, A.I. Melendres-Alvarez, D. Jasso-Cantú, J.A. Villarreal-Quintanilla, R. Rodríguez-García|
|Keywords: ||low chilling, mutant, Malus domestica, bioregulators, apex, seeds|
'Golden Delicious' is an important apple cultivar in Arteaga Coahuila, Mexico.
However, in most years mild winters are present and are reflected in an evident lack of chilling for planted trees of this deciduous fruit material.
Several mutants of this cultivar with less chilling requirement have been detected and they have been named: 'Aguanueva II', 'Brotador', 'Primicia' and 'Tunal'. This research was performed with the purpose to highlight the pomological characteristics and to learn more of the presence of endogenous gibberellins at the apex and in seed tissue of these mutants.
Shoot tips were collected early in the spring when new apical growth reached 10 cm long; whereas, seed samples were extracted from young fruits ten weeks after full bloom.
Shoot tips and removed seeds were frozen in liquid nitrogen, freeze dried and prepared for endogenous gibberellins analysis using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique.
At the apex of all mutants the presence of gibberellins A4 and A7 was found; whilst, A1 was detected only in 'Aguanueva II' and 'Primicia'. Inactive GAs were also found in some of them.
In fruit seeds, the gibberellins biologically active A4 and A7 were present in all mutants; whereas, GA1 was identified in 'Aguanueva II'. Several inactive GAs such as A9, A12, A17, A20, A44 and A53 were also present among these apple mutants.
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