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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1149: II International Workshop on Bacterial Diseases of Stone Fruits and Nuts

Studies on the etiology and control of brown apical necrosis (BAN) of walnut fruits in Turkey

Authors:   S. Akat, H. Özaktan, L. Yolageldi
Keywords:   Persian walnut (Juglans regia), Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis, Fusarium equiseti, F. verticillioides, Alternaria alternata
DOI:   10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1149.10
Abstract:
Brown apical necrosis (BAN) on Persian walnut (Juglans regia) fruits has been the start of premature walnut fruit drop in Turkey. In this study, walnut orchards in Marmara Region of Turkey were visited during the growing seasons 2010 to 2011 to determine the etiology of BAN. It was indicated that the major causal agent of BAN was Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis, and fungal agents such as Fusarium equiseti, F. verticillioides, Alternaria alternata seemed to be involved in the induction of BAN, causing secondary infections, and growing as saprophytes on bacterial-infected tissues, thus enhancing disease symptoms and severity. At the end of the field observations, it was indicated that 'Hartley' and 'Howard' were the most susceptible cultivars to the disease while local cultivar 'Bilecik' was less susceptible to BAN. The result of this study indicated that copper oxychloride and Mancozeb were the most effective chemicals against to the main causal agents of BAN.

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