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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1147: IX International Symposium on Artichoke, Cardoon and Their Wild Relatives

Globe artichoke virus free 'Argentina' first year evaluation on field

Authors:   G. Saavedra, M.T. Pino, C. Blanco
Keywords:   artichoke virus free, head quality, yield, population
DOI:   10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1147.52
Abstract:
In Chile, most of the globe artichoke reproduction is vegetative, for this reason there has been a constant decrease in yield because of the effects of virus, nematodes and diseases accumulation through the years. INIA in 2009 started a program for globe artichoke breeding where one of the activities was the generation of globe artichoke virus free (AVF) plants. In 2013 there were enough plants for rooting in greenhouse and generate new plantlets. The objective of this research was to evaluate under field conditions the AVF performance for morphological characteristics, yield and processing quality in a first year of production. The produced plantlets were classified by size in big, medium and small containing each group 27 plants transplanted on February 2014 at 1.42.0 m. Agronomic management was standard for any globe artichoke crop, but there was more care about virus vectors. The plants began sprouting in June 2014 and from this date they were evaluated individually. The results showed that there was no difference in any evaluation among size groups, with a population of 3,750 plants ha-1 the average yield was 11.44.7 t ha-1. The number of head harvested per plant was 3113 (131 in common crop), and the average head weight was 104.38.2 g. The plants were taller with a mean of 68.410.3 cm height, but the size of leaves was high reaching 1.491.7 m, while in common crop this is usually 0.790.7 m. Plants were very strong and vigorous, but the shape of heads was not as desirable as for processing purposes, being predominantly round and with a blunt top. These plants in the first year on field did not have enough low temperature induction for the appropriate head shape, because they were raised in greenhouse under controlled conditions of temperature. Then, it is probable that the environmental condition for bud development was not the appropriate one during the first year. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate this population its second year. However, it is possible to conclude that AVF plants in the first year can produce heads, but the development must be under environmental conditions as similar as possible to on field before transplanting.

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