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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1147: IX International Symposium on Artichoke, Cardoon and Their Wild Relatives

Morphological development of artichoke: focus on the subterranean system

Authors:   A. Reolon-Costa, M.F. Grando, S.M. Scheffer-Basso, S.O. Guini, C.M. Carneiro
Keywords:   anatomy, Cynara cardunculus [var. scolymus (L.) Fiori], growth, root system
DOI:   10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1147.47
Abstract:
The classification of the subterranean system of globe artichoke, which implies the formation of a monopolar branching system, is not fully understood. This study evaluated the ontogeny of the underground system of the species with the purpose of identifying the type of the subterranean organ and contributing to its morphological description. Plants were evaluated considering the dynamics of aerial and subterranean dry matter at 7, 14, 21, 42, 63, 84, 105, 126, 147, 168 and 189 days after seedling emergence. Samples, collected from the primary root, were processed according to the usual method. The cotyledonary bud did not play a role in the underground formation and the plumule gives rise to the first stem branching system, indicating a bipolar branching system, with no rhizome formation. The anatomical analysis of the subterraneous system indicated the presence of root structure, with a vigorous axial root originated from the embryo radicle. The first vascular elements originate from the outer part of the cylinder and mature toward the center of the axis, forming the metaxylem, in centripetal maturation, which is a root rather than a stem trait. Considering the facts above, the globe artichoke has a subterraneous system formed by an axial root and lower-order roots, without rhizome formation, as previously described in the literature for this species.

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