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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1147: IX International Symposium on Artichoke, Cardoon and Their Wild Relatives

Effect of gibberellic acid application on the content of active compounds in leaves and bracts of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.)

Authors:   S.M. García, R. Rotondo, F.S. López Anido, E.L. Cointry, P. Santa Cruz, R. Furlán, A.M. Escalante
Keywords:   cynarin, chlorogenic acid, antioxidant, HPLC-UV-MS
DOI:   10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1147.15
Abstract:
The artichoke is considered as a “functional food” by containing antioxidant compounds, particularly phenols. The content of these active principles depends on the stage of development, genotype, crop management and the portion of the plant under study. The aim was to determine the concentration of cynarin and chlorogenic acid in leaves and bracts in vegetative and reproductive stages of the plants. The genotypes selected were 'Oro Verde FCA' (OV), 'Guri FCA' (GU) and 'Gauchito FCA' (GA), all of them obtained on the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Rosario's National University. The plants were treated with 120 ppm of gibberellic acid (GA3) or untreated. Samples were prepared with 5 leaves of the middle layer of 4 plants in vegetative and reproductive conditions and the bracts of primary heads and stored in freezer (-80°C) until preparation of extracts. Measurements were made at the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of Scientific and Technology Center (CCT-CONICET Rosario, Argentina). The extract were analyzed by HPLC using UV spectroscopy (330 nm) and electrospray MS as detectors. The results showed cynarin (3052 mg kg-1) and chlorogenic acid (562 mg kg-1) in leaves of GA in vegetative stage without treatment of GA3. The concentration was higher in reproductive conditions (4257 and 1079 mg
kg-1, respectively). OV and GU plants in vegetative stage, without treatment of GA3, did not show cynarin in the leaves but they showed chlorogenic acid (863 and 200 mg kg-1, respectively). GA plants treated, in both stages of development, showed lower content of cynarin but it was increased in OV and GU in reproductive stage (540 and 704 mg kg-1, respectively). Chlorogenic acid was detected in GU plants treated with GA3 in both stages. Central bracts without GA3 showed chlorogenic acid and cynarin in all genotypes. The application of GA3 showed both active compounds in GU. In the outer bracts, chlorogenic acid not was detected, while cynarin showed higher concentration in GA and OV. Only GU increased the concentration of both active compounds when GA3 was used. These results demonstrate that the genotype and some crop managements can influence the content of active principles.

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