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ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1143: VII International Symposium on Edible Alliaceae

Onion breeding in Kazakhstan

Authors:   B.M. Amirov, V.O. Alpysbaeva, O.S. Vodyanova, G.M. Ibragimova, T.E. Aitbayev
Keywords:   onion, breeding, yield, disease resistance
DOI:   10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1143.5
Abstract:
In Kazakhstan onions are among the priority vegetable crops and occupy over 23 thousand hectares with its over 90% production area concentrated in the southern and southeastern regions of the country. As of January 2015 in the Register list of breeding achievements permitted for use in Kazakhstan have been included 32 cultivars, including F1 hybrids and open-pollinated varieties. Due to the fact that the list of domestic onion varieties is mainly represented by mid and late maturing ones, in recent years at The Kazakh Research institute of Potato and Vegetable Growing a high priority has been given to the developing of early and mid-early, disease-resistant varieties. For the period of 2012-2014 on the breeding nurseries were evaluated 1605 onion accessions, including the original forms (488 acc.), the selections of the 1st year (131 acc.), the selection of the 2nd year (128 acc.), preliminary test (45 acc.) competitive test (30 acc.), evaluation of families (750 acc.) and reproduction (33 acc.). Over the years of studies by the complex agronomic characters in the nursery of initial forms were distinguished 75 onion accessions, among the selections of 1st year - 44, among the selections of 2nd year - 77, from the pre-test study - 20 accessions. In competitive tests as promising were identified 6 accessions, which provided 10-28% growth of marketable yield as compared to the standard cultivar 'Mereke'. A new domestic early-maturing and high marketable yielding variety of onion called 'Kazakhstansky' ranny was submitted to the State variety testing trials. The results obtained are of scientific and practical interest not only for use in future breeding programs, but also for practical advice and implementation into the commercial production of the new highly productive and disease-resistant varieties of onions.

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